It’s had to no longer trust images, eg the National Geographic edited one of their images to improve it’s look.

Consequentialist – morality is consequences of an act.

Categorical – morals lie in our duties and rights.

The camera never lies but a photographer and photo can.

An crime scene investigator photographer can change the amount of light hitting the face to make injuries look more or less severe. (can we be impartial?) Photographers have huge powers to change perceptions.


  • Cubists
  • Dadaists

Both created collages

Used scissors and glue

Dadaists described themselves as mechanics and often showed they views on politics.

Sean Hillen – 1982, referenced the troubles in Ireland. Some of the photos he used were found whilst others were his own.

“When you cut up a photo you take a whole world with you”

“Collage allows the opening up of the unconscious in a way that is very direct”

Industrial Photographers

  • There were clear lines and boarders
  • The medium used is clear to see.
  • Physical Presence and evidence of the mechanic (like Dadaists) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/6b/Hoch-Cut_With_the_Kitchen_Knife.jpg/220px-Hoch-Cut_With_the_Kitchen_Knife.jpg

Digital Photomontages

  • There is a breakdown of of these boarders so the validity is questioned
  • The medium is information

Such as kennardphillipps

His most famous is of Tony Blair http://www.arrestblair.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/tony_blair_iraq_war.jpg even though this image is fake this is one of the first images come up with a search on Google of ‘Tony Blair in Iraq’ even though this image is fake. Hence ‘it is hard to trust images you see’

Also many adverts, especially beauty adverts, are edited for example Lancome’s advert with Julia Roberts in was banned for being too edited. http://sites.psu.edu/kaitlynstocker/files/2012/10/Lancome-Ad1.jpeg

Jo Swinson a Liberal Democrat MP campaigns against these adverts.

Context Is King

The digital age is full of information, we can’t get through it all and fully know what is real – Tony Blair photo.

Nathan Pearce is a photographer – some of his photos can seem intimidating for example those in the photos are drinking or taking drugs. Yet others are simple and nice images. So if you see these intimating images of his you may get one impression of him but if you saw the other images you would get a different impression. Therefore context is key.

Again Edward Hopper’s painting ‘Morning Sun’ when typing this into google one gets people trying to imitate his painting in photograph and painting form. But also there have been edits to the painting some paintings the tones have been changed and some have been cropped.

Or the Iranian missile launch looked something similar to: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-56yfKVgGnvA/TdK7o9L8D-I/AAAAAAAAAQE/eQxf0VBjits/s1600/IranMissileTest.jpg

but the photo was edited in many different ways:

Some added an extra missile: http://news.ktab.co.uk/200807/iranmissiles/missiles.jpg

Some photos had tens of missiles in and some jokingly added lots of other additions to the photograph such as cats, people and Obama.

Some could argue that the these actually happened in the Many Worlds Theory.

Amateur footage is becoming more respected as this is eyewitness testimony the quality is not good so people cannot edited it but also why would they? They have nothing to gain from editing.

However, Alison Jackson played on this respect, she takes spoof footage of look-a-likes of celebrities and acts out scenes. She records them on low quality camera phones so it looks like amateur footage so it seems credible she sometimes mixes it with trusted sources such as the BBC when creating a spoof footage of the Miliband brothers fighting.

We looked at a clip of a talk by Fred Ritchen:

How photos add and help

Ritchen is interested in photojournalism. He feels digital photography isn’t photography. Usually they are edited. For example O J Simpson’s arrest photos were manipulated: http://muskrat.middlebury.edu/lt/cr/faculty/jmittell-lt/fmmc0246a-s07-distribution/scott%20l/mywebsite/images/FIRSTOJ.jpg

The darker colours are there for him to look more guilty and to make the viewer thing badly of him.

Amateur photography is believed more “gives cameras to the people and they will tell us what’s happening”

Edirol RM09 sound recording:

In the case from the media loan shop you will get:

  • Recorder
  • Plug
  • SD card
  • USB connector
  • Headphones
  • Connector XLR cable (one end audio jack)
  • External microphone
  • Might have a remote control.


Sound recorder -> WAV/MP3

The settings you should see:

44.1 KHz

Format memory card.

Main menu press:

The middle red button is to record, the first time you press it information will show about the recording such as the sound levels, they should be peaking between 12 and 6.

On the right of the device there is sensitivity levels this will change how loud or quiet the recording is. This is not to be confused with the volume which will just change the volume when hearing the recording.


To produce something similar to Doug Rickard’s work and Mischa Henna on a state in the USA and a theme.

I chose Kansas and agriculture.

Use images on google earth depicting this theme and write around 300 words on it.

When I first got the state Kansas and the theme ‘farming’ I looked at Kansas on google maps and noticed there was a lot of green this is why I took the first two screen shots, I also felt they set the scene, like the opening images to so the viewer can understand what is going on without having to read this text. I also really liked the patterns created in the second image.

I then started to search farming in Kansas, I found out the main kind of farming is wheat so I looked at street view to see if I could take screen shots of the farms that looked like they sell wheat, so with beige colours. I slightly based my search on my own stereotypical views of open landscapes in America. I then furthered my search my looking a specific farms in Kansas which are why I took the last three images.

I doubt the validity of this images as you get one chance to take the photo so the camera captures one specific moment so, for example the weather is not always like that. And just because a lot of farming happens there does not mean  there is nothing else to the state, but obviously there will be towns and cities. However, the camera cannot lie the moment happened and the place exists or existed so we must be able to get some truth from the images.


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